Dual Entity Conceptm Types/Kinds of Accounts/Elements - Problems and Solutions

Problem 1

State the two elements/accounts are effected by the following transactions.

Also state the nature/kind/type of the elements

  1. Started business with capital 75,000
  2. Bought furniture 10,000
  3. Bought goods for cash 20,000
  4. Bought goods from Ram on Credit 10,000
  5. Sold goods for cash 15,000
  6. Sold goods to Shyam on credit 5,000
  7. Returned goods to Ram 1,000
  8. Goods Returned from Shyam 500
  9. Goods taken by Proprietor for his personal use 1,000

Solution

  1. Capital a/c

    Person
    Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
  2. Furniture a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
  3. Goods a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
  4. Goods a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Ram a/c

    Person
  5. Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Goods a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
  6. Goods a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Shyam a/c

    Person
  7. Goods a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Ram a/c

    Person
  8. Goods a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Shyam a/c

    Person
  9. Goods a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Drawings a/c

    Person

Problem 2

Name the two elements/accounts effected by the following transactions. Also state the nature/kind/type of the elements

  1. Paid cash to Ram 5,000
  2. Received cash from Shyam 3,000
  3. Wages Paid 750
  4. Rent Received 2,000
  5. Cash taken by proprietor for his personal use 2,500
  6. Purchased stationery 300
  7. Received interest 800

Solution

  1. Ram a/c

    Person
    Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
  2. Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Shyam a/c

    Person
  3. Wages a/c

    Expenditure
    Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
  4. Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Rent Received a/c

    Income
  5. Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Drawings a/c

    Person
  6. Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Stationery a/c

    Expenditure
  7. Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Interest Received a/c

    Income

To avoid ambiguity regarding what information the account head provides, it is always appropriate to use additional words to specify the nature of information.

Note such usage in case of the following above

  • Rent may indicate either rent received or rent paid
  • Interest may indicate either interest received or interest paid

Where we do not specify by using a suffix, we assume that account head represents an expenditure. This is just a convention and not a rule.

Problem 3

What are the two elements/accounts effected by the following transactions.

Also state the nature/kind/type of the elements

  1. Paid Cash into Bank 25,000
  2. Withdrawn from bank 5,000
  3. Paid to Ram by Cheque 3,500
  4. Received a cheque from Shyam 2,700
  5. Purchased Machinery and paid by cheque 12,000
  6. Salary paid by cheque 4,500
  7. Commission received by Cheque 7,200
  8. Withdrawn from bank for office expenses 5,000
  9. Withdrawn from bank for personal use 3,000
  10. Advertisement expenses paid by cheque 5,000

Solution

  1. Bank a/c

    Organisation
    Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
  2. Cash a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Bank a/c

    Organisation
  3. Bank a/c

    Organisation
    Ram a/c

    Person
  4. Bank a/c

    Organisation
    Shyam a/c

    Person
  5. Machinery a/c

    Tangible Aspect (Asset)
    Bank a/c

    Organisation
  6. Bank a/c

    Organisation
    Salary a/c

    Expenditure
  7. Bank a/c

    Organisation
    Commission Received a/c

    Income
  8. Bank a/c

    Organisation
    Office Expenditures a/c

    Expenditure
  9. Drawings a/c

    Person
    Bank a/c

    Organisation
  10. Bank a/c

    Organisation
    Advertisement a/c

    Expenditure

To avoid ambiguity regarding what information the account head provides, it is always appropriate to use additional words to specify the nature of information.

Note such usage in case of the following above

  • Rent may indicate either rent received or rent paid
  • Interest may indicate either interest received or interest paid

Where we do not specify by using a suffix, we assume the account head to represent an expenditure. This is just a convention and not a rule.

Advertisement, since it is not specified whether it represents an income or an expenditure, is treated as an expenditure.